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Vijayanagara

Travel, World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Site : The magnificent ruins of Hampi

The ruined city of Hampi by the Tungabhadra in Karnataka, is all that remains of the capital of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the most glorious kingdoms in India’s history. At its peak, it covered practically all of South India. The empire rose at a time when several kingdoms in the south were being defeated or weakened by invasions by the Delhi Sultanate. The Kakatiyas of Warangal, the Pandyas  of Madurai, the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra – none of them could withstand the onslaught and the Sultanate appeared poised to take over the south.  
 
However, things changed dramatically in the early 14th century. Muhammad bin Tughlaq took over as the ruler of the Sultanate. He was quite the tyrant, and his reign was full of rebellion. One rebel took refuge in a tiny kingdom called Anegundi, a small village near Hampi. Tughlaq’s army hunted him down, killed him and brought down Anegundi. A general stayed back to administer the region, but he soon returned to Delhi, leaving two young men named Harihara and Bukka Raya in charge. Theories abound about the origins of these brothers, but many accounts say they were princes from one of the ruling families in the region. Harihara and Bukka Raya didn’t declare themselves as kings at first. Quietly, but rapidly, they expanded their territories. Other rulers in the region aligned with these men who seemed capable of warding off the invaders from Delhi, and this unified kingdom became the mighty Vijayanagara empire.
 
Around the same time, another kingdom was founded to its immediate north, following another rebellion. Alauddin Hassan Bahman Shah, a commander in Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s army, revolted against the despotic Sultan, declared independence in the Deccan and founded the Bahmani Sultanate. In about 2 centuries, the Bahmani Sultanate broke up into the five Deccan Sultanates of Ahmednagar, Berar, Bijapur, Bidar and Golconda.
 
In the 16th century, the Vijayanagara ruler Aliya Rama Raya got involved in conflicts between these Sultanates repeatedly, sometimes supporting one, and sometimes another. Finally, the Deccan Sultanates got together in an alliance, and waged war on Vijayanagar. This was the iconic Battle of Talikota (a town known as Talikoti now), in which the Sultanates defeated Vijayanagar and killed Aliya Rama Raya. They then  plundered and destroyed Hampi to the ruined state in which it lies to this day. The slain king’s brother survived the battle; he moved to Penukonda in present day Andhra Pradesh, and ruled the now weakened and diminished kingdom from there. The last Vijayanagara king made Chandragiri his capital, which was captured by the Golconda Sultanate, putting an end to the empire.
 
Hampi is magnificent even in its ruin, and one can only imagine what it looked like in its days of splendour. The city has often been compared to Rome, for its size, its riches, its flourishing art, architecture and literature, and also its abrupt destruction. Vijayanagara architecture is essentially Dravidian in its style, and scattered all over Hampi are an assortment of structures in varying degrees of dilapidation including temples, palaces, bazaars, mandapas, gardens and military structures. It is like Disneyland, but for heritage enthusiasts – here are some pictures 🙂 
Ugra Narasimha, Hampi

‘Ugra Narasimha’, a fierce form of Vishnu’s lion-like avatar

Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

The imposing Virupaksha Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, said to be Hampi’s oldest temple

Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

Inside the Virupaksha Temple

Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

This region is believed to be Kishkindha, the monkey kingdom mentioned in the Ramayan

Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

The Virupaksha Temple somehow escaped the plunder intact, and is still in worship.

Sasivekalu Ganesha, Hampi

Sasivekalu Ganesha. Sasivekalu means mustard seed. I don’t see the resemblance. You?

This is probably a good place to mention Krishna Deva Raya, the most iconic ruler of the Vijayanagara empire. The kingdom reached its zenith during his reign, and literature in Telugu and Kannada received a huge boost under his patronage. Many important monuments in Hampi were built in his time, like the Krishna and Hazara Rama temples below:
Krishna Temple, Hampi

Krishna Temple, built to commemorate Krishna Deva Raya’s victory over Udayagiri in present day Odisha

Krishna Temple, Hampi

The Krishna Temple is not in worship since the main idol was destroyed.

Hazara Rama Temple Hampi

The Hazara Rama Temple replete with bas reliefs depicting tales from the Ramayan

Underwater Shiva Temple, Hampi

The ‘underwater’ Shiva temple with its sanctum submerged in water

Lotus Mahal, Hampi

The Lotus Mahal in the zenana, or the ladies’ wing of the palace zone

Zenana, Hampi

Ruined structures in the compound wall around the zenana area

Elephant Stables, Hampi

The beautiful elephant stables in the palace area

Hampi's famous step well or Pushkarini

Hampi’s famous step well or Pushkarini

Queen's Bath, Hampi

The Queen’s Bath, believed to date back to the reign of the king Achyuta Raya

Vittala Temple

I saved the best for last – the absolutely stunning Vittala Temple

Vittala Temple, Hampi

The stone chariot in the Vittala Temple that has become Hampi’s most famous icon

The group of monuments in Hampi were included in UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in the year 1986. It’d probably take months to even skim the surface of Hampi’s treasures,  but I hope you enjoyed the small glimpse into the medieval town from my short stay there.
 
Hopefully useful information
Nearest railway station: Hospet or Hosapete, 13km away. We took a train from Hyderabad.
Transport: Auto rickshaws, cabs, rented bicycles/scooters
Stay: Hotel Malligi, Hospet. My friend Ajay suggested it, and I totally recommend it too.
Memorable meal: Hotel Swati near the Hospet bus stand. We went because yamsivam recommended it on Twitter. Best dosas in the world. Seriously. Do not miss.