Thiruvaiyaru: A Confluence of Music and Architecture

I used to learn Carnatic singing back when I was in school. Sadly, as it often happens, life got in the way and I drifted away. But I’m still very fond of music, and when my sister asked me if I wanted to go to the Thyagaraja Aradhana in the riverside town of Thiruvaiyaru last week, I jumped at the idea!
Thyagaraja, or Thyagayya, was an 18th century composer-saint and one of Carnatic music’s most prominent icons. He was an ardent devotee of Lord Ram, and wrote innumerable songs in his praise, mostly in Telugu. He was born in another town called Thiruvarur, but he lived in Thiruvaiyaru almost all his life and died there as well. ‘Thiruvaiyaru’ translates to ‘five sacred rivers’, and gets its name from the five rivers that flow in its vicinity. It is about 11km from Tanjore, a major town in Tamil Nadu.
Every year, the Thyagaraja Aradhana, a 5 day festival to honour Thyagaraja, is held at his samadhi on the bank of the Cauvery river. Thousands of music lovers from around the world attend the event. The highlight of the festival is an hour-long rendition of his Pancharatna Kritis, a collection of five monumental compositions. ‘Pancharatna’ translates to five gems. The kritis are sung by everyone present on the last day of the festival, led by some of the most eminent Carnatic vocalists and instrumentalists of the country. We were lucky to attend this particular session and it was truly one of the most special experiences of my life. I’m so glad my sister made me go. Thyagaraja Aradhana Thiruvaiyaru (5)
After spending some time at the festival, we set off on a temple trail along the Cauvery – my dad went positively berserk and kept adding more temples to our list through the day! I want to tell you about two of them, both dedicated to Lord Shiva. The first was the Panchanadeeshwara Temple (also called Aiyarappan Temple. Both names translate to the lord of the five rivers.) just about a km from Thyagaraja’s samadhi. The temple, which must be at least a 1000 years old, has two sections, and the northern part was commissioned by Queen Lokamahadevi, the wife of Rajaraja Chola I, the greatest of the Chola rulers.
Panchanadishwara Temple (7)
Our next stop was the highlight of the day – the Brahmapurishwarar Temple about 12-13km from Thiruvaiyaru. It is also called the Pullamangai Temple, and is in a village called Pasupathikovil. From the outside, you might not even notice it, because it looks like any random newly built temple in South India. But when you enter and walk to the back of the temple, you are rewarded for your persistence. The front portion is new, but the back of the structure dates all the way back to the 7th century AD, and is believed to have been built during the reign of the third Chola ruler Parantaka Chola I. The vimana is in a reasonably good state of preservation and has some exquisite early Chola sculptures.
Brahmapurishwara Temple

The very unremarkable entrance to the temple

Walking to the back of the Brahmapurishwarar Temple

Look at that beauty back there!

There’s an interesting legend about how the main deity here gets his name. Apparently, Lord Brahma was acting a little stuck up because he had the power to create. This didn’t go down too well with Lord Shiva, who chopped off his fifth head and left him powerless. Lord Brahma then had to pray to Lord Shiva, until the latter forgave him and lifted the curse. This form of Lord Shiva that Lord Brahma worshipped, is called Brahmapurishwara.
Lingodhbava, Brahmapurishwara Temple

Below: Lingodbhava – Shiva emerging from a Lingam. Above: The beautiful vimana or tower of the temple

Lingodbhava at the Brahmapurishwarar Temple

A closer look at Lingodhbava

Lord Brahma, Brahmapurishwara Temple

Lord Brahma

Ganesha, Brahmapurishwarar Temple

Lord Ganesh surrounded by Ganas, the plump attendant deities of Lord Shiva

Vimana of the Brahmapurishwarar Temple

A closer look at the vimana

Ganas, Brahmapurishwara Temple

The side of the vimana

The number of temples in the regions around Tanjore and Kumbakonam is absolutely unbelievable. I think we went to about 7-8 major temples that day within a span of just about 35km, including the exquisite Airavateshwara Temple of Darasuram. It is a part of the trio of World Heritage Sites called the Great Living Chola temples – take a look at my post about them.

PS: I’ve moved my blog to my own domain. If you are reading this on a blog reader of some sort, hopefully, you should be able to see this just fine. Do take a look at the website and tell me what you think!

Travel, World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Site : Pattadakal

Chalukya architecture had its beginnings in Aihole and was honed in Badami, but it was in the riverside town of Pattadakal that it reached its zenith. Bearing testimony to this, is a cluster of 10 exquisite temples in the Dravidian and Nagara styles of architecture, that the Chalukyas combined to create their own distinctive idiom. Pattadakal, called Pattada Kallu in Kannada, was where the coronations of the Badami Chalukya kings were held from the 7th century onwards. The town was also called Raktapura in the past, probably because of the red (rakta means blood and pura means city) sandstone with which the temples are built.
The World Heritage Site of Pattadakal includes 9 Shiva temples built between the 7th and 9th centuries. The 10th is a Jain temple built in the Dravidian style, about half a km away. It was probably built later by the Rashtrakutas, who succeeded the Badami Chalukyas.
Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya TemplesPattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples
The oldest of the Shiva temples in Pattadakal is the Sangameshwara Temple, built in the Dravidian style, and the last one to be built was probably the Kasi Visveshwara temple, in the Nagara style. One  simple way to tell which style each temple is built in, is to look at the shikharas. Typically, shikharas in Nagara temples are gently convex, while those in Dravidian temples are pyramidal.
Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples. The difference between Dravidian style and Nagara style shikharas

Dravidian shikhara (left) Nagara shikhara (right)

The loveliest structure in the complex is definitely the Virupaksha temple. It is also the biggest, and the most elaborate. It was built by Queen Trilokyamahadevi in the first half of the 8th century, to commemorate her husband Vikramaditya II’s victory over the Pallavas. The temple is said to be inspired by the Kailashanatha temple of Kanchipuram, and the design of the Kailash temple in Ellora in turn, is said to be based on this one. The interiors as well as the exteriors of this temple are replete with elaborate carvings from Hindu mythology, and the pillars leading to the sanctum are breathtaking, depicting scenes from the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Apparently, these carvings were done after the pillars were built – this meant, there was absolutely no room for even a single mistake! While all the temples have small nandis in front of them, this one has a smooth, shiny and colossal bull in a pavilion of its own (called a nandi-mandapa) in front of the temple. The Virupaksha temple and its nandi-mandapa are the only ones in the complex that are still in active worship.
Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples

A pillar in the Virupaksha temple depicting Bhishma lying on a bed of arrows (Mahabharata)

Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples

The Mallikarjuna Temple adjacent to the Virupaksha Temple was built soon after, by Vikramaditya II’s second queen, and it is like a smaller version of the latter. The other structures here are the Galaganatha, Papanatha, Jambulinga, Chandrashekhara, Sangameshwara and Jambulinga temples.

Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples
Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples
Pattadakal Group of Badami Chalukya Temples
And that brings us to the end of my series of posts about the temples that the Badami Chalukyas built. As I mentioned earlier, the best place to stay in while visiting this circuit is Badami, only 3 hours from Hampi, another World Heritage Site.


Here are the earlier posts from the series:


Eid Mubarak, Merry Christmas, and a very Happy New Year to all of you!
I’ll see you in 2016!


The next stop in my Chalukya series is Mahakuta, a very small town about 15km from Badami. Here too, the Badami Chalukya legacy lives on in the form of a group of 6th-8th century temples in their signature architectural style. The temples are all dedicated to Lord Shiva. The largest of these are the Mahakuteshwara and Mallikarjuna temples. It is believed that the Mahakuteshwara temple was built by Kirtivarman I, the son of the first Chalukya king Pulakesin I. The rest of the temples in the complex were built by later kings of the dynasty, and have shikharas typically seen in the Nagara school of architecture.Badami Chalukya Temples in MahakutaBadami Chalukya Temples in MahakutaThe hub of activity in Mahakuta is the rectangular Pushkarini tank, fed by natural spring water.

Badami Chalukya Temples in MahakutaThe afternoon we went, dozens of young boys from the village were playing in the water. They were very sweet, friendly, and excited to be photographed!
Badami Chalukya Temples in Mahakuta
Badami Chalukya Temples in MahakutaA small shrine with a Chaturmukha or four faced Shivalinga (quite uncommon, apparently) sits in the tank.
Badami Chalukya Temples in Mahakuta

Mahakuta has played a huge role in helping historians unravel the story of the Chalukyas. The Mahakuta Pillar, a sandstone pillar with inscriptions in Sanskrit and Old Kannada, providing a wealth of information about the Badami Chalukyas, was found lying here. It is believed to date back to the reign of Kirtivarman I’s successor, Mangalesha ie, the late 6th century. Today, it is kept in the Archaeological museum in Bijapur, about 150km from here.
While not as expansive as those in Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, most of the temples here are still in active worship, and the vibrant atmosphere makes Mahakuta a worthwhile stop if you have a couple of hours to spare.


Badami Caves: exquisite art in the Capital Of The Chalukyas

Badami, about 35km from Aihole, was the capital of the Badami Chalukyas for 3 centuries. The town was originally called Vatapi. Legend has it that two demon brothers called Vatapi and Ilvala lived here. Vatapi would disguise himself as an animal, and Ilvala would offer his meat to weary travelers, who would eat it unsuspectingly. Ilvala would call out to Vatapi, and the latter would come back to life (thanks to a boon he’d received), bursting out of the person’s stomach and killing him. Vatapi and Ilvala would then eat the poor dead passerby. This went on until a sage named Agastya came by. He played along with the demons’ trick, but immediately digested Vatapi, before Ilvala could call him. This ended the menace the two brothers were causing in the region 🙂
Rock cut cave temples of Badami
Badami is most famous for its complex of four Chalukyan rock cut cave temples. Gouged out of almond (called badam in India) colored sandstone that is believed to give Badami its present name, every cave has pillared verandahs in front, and a sanctum right at the back. They were all excavated not at the same time, but during the reigns of various Badami Chalukya rulers. (I wrote a little about the dynasty here)
Rock cut cave temples of Badami
The lowest cave is dedicated to Lord Shiva, and is believed to have been built in the 6th century, during the reign of the second Chalukya ruler. It is decorated with sculptures of Shiva in various forms, and the most exquisite ones are those of Nataraja (Shiva in his cosmic dance), Harihara (half Shiva and half Vishnu) and Ardhanareeshwara (half Shiva and half Parvati).
Cave dedicated to Shiva, Badami
Shiva as Ardhanareeshwara
The second cave is dedicated to Lord Vishnu and has magnificent depictions of him in his Vamana avatar as Trivikrama and in his Varaha avatar as a boar, among others.
Cave dedicated to Vishnu, Badami
Vishnu as Trivikrama in his Vamana avatar
The third cave is the largest and probably the most spectacular, and is also believed to be the oldest of the lot. It is dedicated to Lord Vishnu as well, and has images of his Narasimha avatar, Varaha avatar, Vamana avatar and also one of him seated on a coiled serpent.
Cave dedicated to Vishnu, Badami
Vishnu seated on a coiled serpent. In his Varaha avatar on the right.

The topmost cave is absolutely breathtaking, and is the only Jain shrine in the complex, dedicated to Lord Mahavira. The columns in this cave are decorated with Jain tirthankaras. Inside the sanctum, Mahavira is seated in deep meditation.

Jaina Cave, Badami
Jaina Cave, Badami
Mahavira seated in meditation in the sanctum

The sparkling (manmade) Agastya lake in front of the caves, separates the rocks from the stunning Bhootanatha group of temples. They are built in the Chalukyan style of architecture with features from the Dravidian temples of the south and the Nagara temples of the north. One cluster was built in the 7th century by the Badami Chalukyas, while the other was built in the 11th century or so, by the Kalyani Chalukyas.

Bhootanatha Group of Temples, Badami

Many scenes in the Bollywood movie Guru were shot in Badami. You can see the caves in this song. The scene in which Abhishek and Aishwarya get married was shot at the Bhootanatha group of temples.


By road, Badami is about 3 hours from Hospet. Many people choose to do a day trip from Hampi/Hospet to the Chalukyan trio of Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal. Since Badami has many decent hotels, and we didn’t want to rush through everything in a day, we stayed a couple of nights here.

Aihole : a treasure trove of Chalukyan architecture

Yet again, I’ve neglected my blog for months, but I’ve now accepted that my enthusiasm is always going to wax and wane, and that’s okay. So from Bhutan in my previous post, let’s go deep into the Bagalkot district of Karnataka in Southern India, to talk about the Chalukyas, a powerful dynasty who ruled between the 6th and 12th centuries. At their peak, their territories included all of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. The dynasty was established by the first king Pulakesin I, after overthrowing the reigning Kadamba dynasty. His first capital was Aihole, but he soon shifted it to Badami. So he and his descendants  are called the Badami Chalukyas.
There were three distinct Chalukyan dynasties – the Badami Chalukyas (6th to 8th centuries), the later Kalyani Chalukyas (11th to 12th centuries) with their capital at Basavakalyan near Bidar, and the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, near present day Eluru in Andhra Pradesh. This and the next few posts are going to be about the legacy left behind by the Badami Chalukyas.
Aihole, a sleepy and primitive village by the Malaprabha river is a wondrous treasure trove of Chalukyan architecture. Many consider it a cradle of temple architecture in South India, and with good reason – there are at least a 100 temples scattered across the village in varying states of preservation. They range from early rock cut cave temples to later structural temples built in the distinctive Chalukyan idiom, which combines Nagara (Indo-Aryan architecture seen in Odisha, etc) and Dravida (the kind you see in Tamil Nadu, etc) features. Some clusters of well preserved temples are enclosed by compound walls, while others are just a part of the village. Let me show you some of the most prominent temples in Aihole.
Among the oldest is Ravana Phadi, a cave temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, dating back to the 6th century.
Ravana Phadi, Aihole, built by the Badami Chalukyas
Ravana Phadi, Aihole, built by the Badami ChalukyasThe most recognized structure in Aihole is the beautiful Durga Temple with its unusual apsidal shape (imagine one side of a rectangle replaced by a U)It is believed to date back to the late 7th century.
Durga Temple, Aihole, built by the Badami Chalukyas
Durga Temple, Aihole, built by the Badami Chalukyas

The Lad Khan temple in the same compound almost looks like it was built with logs of wood. They say the curious name comes from a Muslim General who used the structure as his residence for  a while. The complex also has a small archaeological museum. My favourite exhibit there was the birds eye view of Aihole that shows the distribution of temples around the village.
Lad Khan Temple, Aihole, built by the Badami Chalukyas

The Hucchimalli Gudi (Gudi means temple) stands in its own enclosure along with a beautifully carved step well.

Hucchimalli Gudi, Aihole, built by the Badami Chalukyas
Step well, Hucchimalli Gudi, Aihole, built by the Badami ChalukyasSome more temples from around the village:
Badami Chalukya temples in Aihole
Badami Chalukya temples in Aihole
Badami Chalukya temples in Aihole
Badami Chalukya temples in Aihole
Aihole is about 140km from Hampi/Hospet. The nearest town where you can get good accommodation is Badami, 35km away. If you are crazy about monuments, you could easily spend hours or even days exploring Aihole, given the number of ruins in the village. But for most other people, 3-4 hours should be adequate to visit the most important temples.

Bhutan Diaries : Tiger’s Nest Monastery, Paro

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
That little speck is the Tiger’s Nest Monastery
See that little white spot up there? That’s Taktsang, or the Tiger’s Nest Monastery in Paro, the most sacred site in all of Bhutan. Legend has it that Guru Rinpoche, the Indian saint who spread Buddhism across Bhutan, flew to the top of this cliff on the back of his consort, who took the form of a tigress. A monastery was built at the site in the 17th century. It hangs off the rockface dangerously at more than 3100m above sea level, and I demand to know why it’s not a wonder of the world!
Trekking up to the monastery is one of the holiest pilgrimages that a Buddhist can undertake. Even if you’re not spiritually inclined, it’s an experience of a lifetime.
The trek will take a good part of a day, and I’d be lying if I said it’s easy. But seriously, if I (lazy, unfit, somewhat asthmatic) can do it, literally anybody can. The first and last half hours are the hardest – the first is just starting trouble, and the last involves about 700 very steep steps. The rest of the time, you kind of settle into a comfortable pace. Ponies are available to take you up about one third of the way, but better avoided because they are not completely safe. Hiking poles are useful, and you can rent one at the base. We did the trek on the last day of our stay in Bhutan, so we were well acclimatized to the altitudes.
Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
One of the easier stretches of the climb

About 1-1.5 hours into the climb, the cafeteria appears in the distance like an oasis! It’s the only place in the trail where you can stop for refreshments or even a meal:

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
That cluster of shacks is the cafeteria
Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
This lucky cat lives in the cafeteria

As you trudge on, you are treated to breathtaking views all around, and you can see the monastery slowly getting closer.Sometimes, you can see it clearly, past the greenery:

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Past the greenery

Sometimes  you see it through the prayer flags:

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Through the prayer flags

If it’s spring, you can see it past the rhododendrons:

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Beyond the rhododendrons
Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Rhododendrons in full bloom

Through the gaps in pine trees

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Through the gaps in pine trees

Sometimes, very faintly, through the clouds

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Through the clouds

At times, it seems close enough to touch

Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Almost there!
 And then, finally, you make it! Photography isn’t allowed inside the monastery, so I cannot show you what it’s like inside, but it’s incredibly spiritual and serene. It’s the site Guru Rinpoche chose, to meditate for 3 years, 3 months, 3 days and 3 hours, and you’re right there! Just the thought is amazing 🙂 After making a wish at his altar, we began the long descent, which is harder than you’d think. Some parts can get very slippery, and keeping your balance can hurt your toes quite a bit. It was bittersweet – an absolutely beautiful trip was ending, but in the best possible way  🙂
Paro Taktsang or Tiger's Nest Monastery in Paro, Bhutan
Holy water cascading down just before you reach the monastery